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美国研究发现超级抗体 可对抗所有新冠感染!

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发表于 2021-7-20 10:02:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

美国研究发现“超级抗体” 可对抗所有新冠感染!

美国发现“超级抗体”

美国发现“超级抗体”

美国西雅图贺勤森癌症研究中心研究团队成功发现可对抗新冠病毒与其他相似冠状病毒的“超级抗体”,可望对研发新款新冠疫苗及疗法提供助益。(欧新社档案照)

新冠肺炎肆虐全球一年多,陆续出现的变种病毒株为全球的疫苗与疗法研发带来挑战。美国华盛顿州西雅图贺勤森癌症研究中心(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)的研究团队,成功发现可对抗新冠病毒与其他类似冠状病毒的“超级抗体”,十四日将成果发表在《自然》(Nature)期刊,可望对研发新款疫苗及疗法提供助益。

由贺勤森癌症研究中心生化学家史达尔(Tyler Starr)领导的研究团队,试验十二种抗体后,发现一种“S2H97”抗体能够防止新冠变种病毒株与其他乙型冠状病毒属支系B(Sarbecovirus)传播,在实验室试管与仓鼠体内的试验都获得良好效果。目前已知的乙型冠状病毒属支系B有“严重急性呼吸道症候群”(SARS)病毒与新冠病毒等。

S2H97 也能治癒感染任何病毒株病患

“S2H97”抗体的目标是受体结合域中先前看不到且隐蔽的区域,仅会在新冠病毒试图感染细胞时出现。该区域为病毒的关键部分,不会因为任何突变消失。因此“S2H97”抗体被视为一种“超级抗体”,可预防所有新冠肺炎的感染,并治癒感染任何新冠病毒株的患者。

史达尔指出,分子瞄准该结合域将可有效抵御许多病毒,有朝一日也许能应用于泛乙型冠状病毒属支系B疫苗。

研究团队说,其他十一种抗体对病毒也有良好的中和能力,但针对病毒变异较少的部分较为通用。其中“S2E128”抗体的效力仅次于“S2H97”抗体,不仅能够有效对抗新冠病毒及其变种病毒株,也像“S2H97”抗体一样,展现出对病毒逃逸的高度阻碍能力。

加拿大萨克其万大学(University of Saskatchewan)病毒学家班内吉(Arinjay Banerjee)认为,该团队辨识出可与一系列乙型冠状病毒属支系B结合的抗体可喜可贺,剩下的问题是其他仍未知的病毒该如何处理。班内吉表示,儘管科学家无法测试一种抗体在对抗未知病毒时的活性,但泛乙型冠状病毒属支系B的疗法及疫苗,将帮助全世界对抗下一次来自野生动物的人类冠状病毒疫情。

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-7-20 11:03:59 | 显示全部楼层
This ‘super antibody’ for COVID fights off multiple coronaviruses

An newly identified immune molecule raises hopes for a vaccine against a range of viruses related to SARS-CoV-2.
Diana Kwon
  

Illustration of antibodies responding to an infection with the SARS-CoV-2

Illustration of antibodies responding to an infection with the SARS-CoV-2

Illustration of antibodies responding to an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus particle.

Antibodies (light blue; artist’s impression) swarm around a SARS-CoV-2 particle.Credit: Design Cells/SPL

Scientists have uncovered an antibody that can fight off not only a wide range of SARS-CoV-2 variants, but also closely related coronaviruses1. The discovery could aid the quest to develop broad-ranging treatments and vaccines.

Tyler Starr, a biochemist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, and his co-authors set out to shed light on a problem facing antibody treatments for COVID-19: some variants of SARS-CoV-2 have acquired mutations that enable the virus to escape the antibodies’ grasp.

The researchers examined 12 antibodies that Vir Biotechnology, a company based in San Francisco, California, that was involved in the study, isolated from people who had been infected with either SARS-CoV-2 or its close relative SARS-CoV. Those antibodies latch on to a fragment of viral protein that binds to receptors on human cells. Many antibody therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection grab the same protein fragment, called the receptor binding domain.

The researchers compiled a list of thousands of mutations in the binding domains of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. They also catalogued mutations in the binding domain on dozens of SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses that belong to a group called the sarbecoviruses. Finally, they assessed how all these mutations affect the 12 antibodies’ ability to stick to the binding domain.


COVID and the brain: researchers zero in on how damage occurs

One antibody, S2H97, stood out for its capacity to adhere to the binding domains of all the sarbecoviruses that the researchers tested. S2H97, which the authors dub a pan-sarbecovirus antibody, was able to prevent a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses from spreading among cells growing in the laboratory. It was also powerful enough to protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection. “That’s the coolest antibody that we described,” Starr says.

A closer examination of S2H97’s molecular structure revealed that it targets a previously unseen and well-hidden region on the binding domain — a section that is revealed only when the domain pops up to bind to a cell’s receptor. Starr notes that molecules targeting this binding-domain region could generate protection against multiple viruses, and might one day be used in pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

The other 11 antibodies could target a variety of viruses, but the more effectively an antibody blocked the entry of the earliest known SARS-CoV-2 strain into a cell, the smaller the range of viruses it could bind. The team also found that antibodies that could disable a wide variety of viruses targeted sections of the binding domain that tended not to change as the virus evolved.

It’s good news that the team has identified antibodies that can bind to a range of sarbecoviruses, says Arinjay Banerjee, a virologist at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. “The biggest question that remains is, what about viruses that we don’t know exist yet?”

Although scientists can’t test an antibody’s activity against an unknown virus, Banerjee adds, pan-sarbecovirus treatments and vaccines would help to prepare the world to fight the next coronavirus that jumps from wildlife into humans.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01917-9

Nature

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